Definition details

Decision support systems (DSS)
Decision support systems are software-based systems that collect and analyze data from different sources. The aim is to help farmers in their decision-making process, from planning to the adoption of the best practices and solutions based on their specific needs.

DSS: Varieties for which KWS provides growth/management advice via its basic digital tools, such as variety recommendation and seed rate calculator.

DSS+: Varieties for which specific digital tools have been developed, to support the farmer with specific management decisions during the growing season using agronomic models, remote sensing data etc.

Organic Breeding
Organic production and products | European Commission (

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)
Male sterility in plants is often cytoplasmically based and maternally inherited. Male sterile plants produce no functional pollen but do produce viable eggs. Cytoplasmic male sterility is used in agriculture to facilitate the production of hybrid seed. Hybrid seed is produced from a cross between two genetically different lines; such seeds usually result in larger, more vigorous plants. The main practical problem in producing hybrid seed is to prevent self-pollination, which would produce seeds that are not hybrid.¹

Double haploid technology
Haploid inducer line can be transferred (DH) technology can not only shorten the breeding process but also increase genetic gain. Haploid induction and subsequent genome doubling are the two main steps required for DH technology...Doubled haploid (DH) technology has provided a strategy to significantly shorten breeding cycles and increase genetic gain.²

¹ Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, et al. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 7th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000. Cytoplasmic male sterility. Available from:

² Ren, J., Wu, P., Trampe, B., Tian, X., Lübberstedt, T., & Chen, S. (2017). Novel technologies in doubled haploid line development. Plant biotechnology journal, 15(11), 1361–1370.